8 Tips for Reading Comprehension

 

by Jessie Mewshaw, M.S., CCC-SLP, Speech-Language Pathologist with Chapel Hill-Carrboro City Schools

Engaging students with language disorders in literacy activities can be challenging. These students may struggle with the pace of reading, comprehending vocabulary, understanding figurative language and inferred story components, and maintaining attention to a task that they perceive to be very difficult.

Here are 8 strategies SLPs use to make the reading process more engaging for students with language delays and disorders:

  1. Discuss the book title and cover illustration – make inferences with the student about the story before reading.
  • Example: “The title of this book is Gabby Is Hungry. What do you think this story might be about?”
  1. Preview the book through a “picture walk” before you begin reading – this prepares the student for what they might encounter when reading the book and allows the student to make inferences based on illustrations.
  • Example: “I see in this picture that the little girl is wearing shorts and sandals. I wonder what season it is…”
  1. Pause frequently during reading to discuss illustrations, define new vocabulary, explore figurative language, and check in for understanding.
  • Example: “The boy ‘exclaimed.’ Huh, I wonder what that means. Let’s look at his face in this picture and figure out how he might be feeling.”
  1. Ask students to draw comparisons between the book and their own life experiences.
  • Example: “The dog seems really scared. Can you remember a time when you felt scared?”
  1. Don’t ask all the questions – encourage the student to ask questions, too.
  2. When a student struggles with decoding and/or reading fluency, comprehension of information is sacrificed – re-read what the student has read to give them a chance to comprehend the text without the added pressure of decoding and reading fluency.
  3. Make reading fun! Add character voices, make sound effects, use props, etc.
  4. Praise, praise, praise – students are more likely to try a difficult task when they are praised for their successes and hard work.
  • Example: “I love that you read that whole book with me! I can’t wait to read together again.”
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The Power of a Peer

by Jordan Lupton, M.S., CCC-SLP (Chapel Hill-Carrboro City Schools, North Carolina)

Photo credit: Pixabay

INTRODUCTION

Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often face significant struggles with social interaction, yet they have fewer opportunities to interact with typically developing peers because of an increased need for adult assistance with academics, attention, or behavior. Although these areas are important for improving a child’s quality of life at school, many parents of children with ASD rank social communication and interaction among their top concerns, and many ASD learners themselves desire to learn ways to improve peer relationships at school.

Peer Mediated Instruction and Intervention (PMII) provides a way for teachers and therapists to address this area of need. Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill define PMII as follows:

“With a foundation in behaviorism and social learning theory, PMII involves systematically teaching peers without disabilities, ways of engaging learners with ASD in positive and meaningful social interactions.”

In addition to the benefits for the learner with ASD, PMII also benefits typically developing peers in expanding their social network, developing new friendships, and having higher quality interactions with classmates. Anyone can be trained in the use of PMII. Teachers, therapists, and paraprofessionals should work together to implement PMII successfully.

PMII FOR PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY-AGED CHILDREN

  • Peer Modeling: Teach a peer to demonstrate a target skill to the student with ASD. Target skills may include: requesting, following directions, greeting, or joining in an activity or conversation.
  • Peer Initiation Training: Train peers to encourage interactions with students with ASD, such as maintaining conversations, taking turns, or responding to invitations.
  • Direct Training: Peers and students with ASD are taught specific skills directly.

PMII FOR UPPER ELEMENTARY, MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

  • Peer Networks: Peers meet and interact with the learner with ASD in a regular meeting outside of instructional time.
  • Peer Supports: Peers support the learner with ASD academically and socially in an inclusive environment.

USING PMII IN THE CLASSROOM OR THERAPY SESSIONS

  1. Identify the goal for your learner with ASD and times when social interactions naturally occur.
  2. Select peers thoughtfully and carefully. The peers should be exhibit good language, social and play skills, express a willingness to participate, and have parent permission.
  3. Train peers to recognize and appreciate individual differences, then review target behaviors.
  4. Develop scripts for peers to use, and role play with them.
  5. Plan for peers to interact with the learner with ASD in scheduled times daily.
  6. Monitor progress and provide peer support and feedback as needed.

SUMMARY

Peer-Mediated Instruction and Intervention is an effective intervention for students with autism spectrum disorder. PMII can be used to effectively address goals in social skills, communication, joint attention, play skills, school-readiness, and academic skills.

REFERENCES

AFIRM Team. (2015). Peer-mediated instruction and intervention. Chapel Hill, NC: National

Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorder, FPG Child Development Center, University of North Carolina. Retrieved from http://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/Peer-mediated-instruction-and-intervention

Dynamic Assessment: The Answer to Moving Away from Standardized Tests

by Sarah Smith, M.S., CCC-SLP and Beth Burns, M.S., CCC-SLP, Speech-Language Pathologists in Chapel Hill-Carrboro City Schools

Our most recent blog entry talked about the limitations of standardized tests.  Today, we’ll address the answer to the question:  “If I shouldn’t use a standardized test to determine presence of a language disorder, what do I do?”  In short, use dynamic assessment, which means test – teach – test.

Dynamic Assessment is the best way to eliminate the biases present within standardized assessments. As a contrast to a standardized assessment, dynamic assessment  shifts our consideration from do they know it… to can they learn it?

Can the student acquire new skills with the same effort as peers from similar backgrounds?  

Dynamic Assessment  is composed of a pretest, mediated learning experience, and a post test. Throughout the entire process we are evaluating whether the student can learn new skills with the same ease or effort as typically developing peers.  Dynamic assessment also gives us insight into how the student learns. The subjectivity within Dynamic Assessment means it is imperative for us as clinicians to develop our clinical opinions by knowing what normal is.  We also need to know how much instructional effort is needed for typical peers.  In other words, we need to have good clinical skills.

Language Samples incorporating Dynamic Assessment are the fastest and the best way to provide a qualitative look at a student’s language.

For detailed information on applying dynamic assessment — Check it out!

Fast Mapping Task Test — Check it out!

Non-Word Repetition Task– Check it out!

Quick Guide: Pragmatic Language

by Rena Dadolf, M.S., CCC-SLP and Theresa Menz, M.S., CCC-SLP

We’re hearing a lot these days about Pragmatic Language Disorders…

The first question many teachers and parents have is “What is Pragmatic Language?”

Pragmatics is the understanding and use of language in social situations – in other words, successfully having conversations with other people.

Pragmatic skills involve understanding and using nonverbal skills such as body language as well as what we say, how we say it, and the appropriateness of what we say.

Pragmatic skills are vital for communicating our personal thoughts, ideas and feelings. Children with pragmatic language weakness may misinterpret others’ communicative intent and have difficulty responding appropriately verbally or non-verbally. Conversation skills are often weak and children with this disorder may not engage in the back and forth fluid flow of questioning, answering, and commenting that comes so naturally to most of us.

Pragmatic Language Skills:

  1. Using language for different functions: greeting, informing, requesting
  2. Changing your language based on the needs of the person you are talking to:
    • Speaking differently in the library than on a playground
    • Giving background information
    • Talking differently to a baby than an adult
  3. Following Conversation Rules:
    • Taking turns in conversation
    • Staying on topic
  4. Rephrasing when misunderstood
  5. Using appropriate facial expressions and eye contact
  6. Understanding how to take another person’s perspective

While all children need to be taught these skills, children with pragmatic language weaknesses need explicit instruction involving these skills. The use of visual supports, practice, and role play are key. Contact your school’s speech-language pathologist to learn more!

How Do I Monitor Progress?

MTSS/RTI Tier 2: How Do I Keep Data?

By Jordan Lupton and Ruth Morgan

When students are not making adequate progress receiving core instruction, teachers or support staff supplement the core instruction with additional interventions.  This level of additional support is considered MTSS Tier 2.  These interventions are delivered in a small group format, and progress monitoring data is used to make adjustments to instruction and intervention.  

But what does that progress monitoring data look like?  

In addition to academic data collection tools embedded within programs like mClass and AIMsweb, other data methods can be helpful in keeping track of student progress.  Additional sources of data include: running records, reading logs, journals, observations, topic tests, etc.  

You can also create your own Google form or document to keep track of student data. Ruth Morgan, SLP at Ephesus Elementary, wrote about how to create Google forms and spreadsheets on her blog, Chapel Hill Snippets.  Check out her step-by-step instructions here.

If low-tech forms are more your style, design your own Google document table.  To make data collection quick and user-friendly, create your form with choices that can be circled. Consider the following example of a weekly data form for a writing intervention for three students:

interventiontable

Whatever method of data collection you choose, make sure you are being mindful of exactly what data you will need to help your students achieve their goals.  The goal is not to create extra work for yourself, but to inform your instruction and identify positive changes in student performance

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